Word Recognition vs. Sociopsycholinguistic Views of Reading (Bottom-up Processes vs. Meaning-centered Processes) (Goodman, Freeman & Freeman)

Smith, Sheryl M.

Word Recognition vs. Sociopsycholinguistic Views of Reading

The Word Recognition view, by Kenneth Goodman, is based on the belief that words need to become recognized. It is called Bottom-Up process, because it focuses on first learning sounds and then texts (Kim). Students are taught to sound out words and then are able to fit the sounds with words that they recognize in their vocabulary (Freeman & Freeman, 2004). Methods include using phonics and breaking words down into parts for identification (Freeman & Freeman, 2004). Vocabulary is learned prior to reading (Freeman & Freeman, 2004). Emphasis is placed on pronunciation, word structure, oral reading and pre-reading activities. Goodman claims that preoccupation with learning words, letter and sounds hinders children from seeking the true meaning of words (Newman, 1979).

The Sociophycholinguistic View is a Top-Down (Kim), or Meaning-Centered process based on the premise that the ability to use written forms of language is innate and acquired. It is a holistic approach in which students learn words by reading and focusing on meaning (Freeman & Freeman, 2004). Methods include using higher levels of texts for students to follow along with and allowing students to construct meaning through context clues and their own prior knowledge (Freeman & Freeman, 2004), (Kim).

Freeman, D. E. & Freeman, Y. S. (2004). Essential Linguistics. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Kim, N. How to Teach Students to Read for Meaning. A paper presented at University of Wisconsin-Eau Claire. Available online at: www.orianit.edu-negev.gov.il/english/files/reading/articles/kim.rtf

Newman, H. (1979). Some Thoughts on Goodman's Views on Word Perception. A paper presented at the Annual Meeting of the College Reading Association (23rd, Boston, MA, November 1-3, 1979).

Critique/Classroom Implications
Britton, Casey W.

Word Recognition vs. Sociopsycholinguistic
A cite I feel brought a great definition to my interest states that word recognition is, “The process of determining the pronunciation and some degree of meaning of a word in written or printed form; the quick and easy identification of the form, pronunciation, and appropriate meaning of a word previously encountered in print or writing.” Wikipedia defines psycholinguistics as, “is the study of the psychological and neurobiological factors that enable humans to acquire, use, comprehend and produce language.” The word recognition view is simply learning the different sounds, and then being able to read texts. Once sounds become familiarized, students can relate words and memorization to sounds as they begin the reading stage.
A heavy emphasis on word recognition can be detrimental because many students are able to read fluently and sound out words correctly without comprehending texts. Comprehension needs tobe emphasized in all reading experiences.

The Sociophycholinguistic View is learning to read by focusing on the words and their meaning. A reading I found mentioned using this technique is commonly used by reading more difficult text than normal. As students read, they become familiar with the words by looking at pictures at putting a meaning each individual word. Some different ways to implement these two techniques into the classroom may consist of make alphabet books on different topics, practice sounding out words, make a Venn diagram to compare two stories, write rhyming poetry and then discuss different spellings for the same sound, identify words on a big book page that start with the same sound, and read a language experience story they have created with the teacher.
References: (please use APA style)

Freeman, D. E. & Freeman, Y. S. (2004). Essential Linguistics. Portsmouth, NH: Heinemann.

Skinner , C. (2010). Psycholinguistics. Wikipedia. Retrieved December 2, 2010, from http://en.wikiped/wiki/Psycholinguistics

Skinner , C. (2010). Psycholinguistics. Wikipedia. Retrieved December 2,
2010, from http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Psycholinguistics
[NOTE: Italicize "Wikipedia"]

(Skinner , 2010)

Suzanne , G. (2009, September 9). Suzzane's blog. Retrieved from http://suzgoldberg.blogspot.com/2009/09/word-reognitionsociopsycholinguistic.html